Partnership Limited by Shares in Bulgaria

A partnership limited by shares is established by a contract and shares issued for the contributions of limited liability partners. For partnerships limited by shares, the provisions for joint-stock companies are applied. PLS is regulated in the Articles 253 to 260 of the Commercial Code. The partnership limited by shares is a capital company – a hybrid between the joint stock company and the limited partnership. Read more

Register a Limited Partnership  in Bulgaria

Limited partnership (LP) is a company formed by a contract between two or more persons to carry out business under a common firm, as one or more of the partners are jointly and fully liable for the obligations of the company, and the rest are only responsible to the extent of the payment agreed.

The trade name of the limited partnership shall contain the words “limited partnership” or the abbreviation “LP”. Тhe name of at least one full liability partner and should be of a national exclusivity.The contract for the establishment of a limited partnership shall be made in writing with the notarized signatures of all members and must contain the requisites set out in the provisions of Article 102 of the Commercial Law.

Legal requirements for set up of Limited Partnership in Bulgaria

The establishment of a limited partnership does not require any initial capital.The entry of a LP in the Commercial Register is based on an application form. It can be requested by any of the full liability partners or by a lawyer with an explicit written power of attorney. The limited partnership has got two categories of members – full liability and limited liability partners. The management and representation of the company supposed to be made by the full liability partners. The full liability partners do not make any financial or material contributions to the company. On the other side, limited liability partners are required to make a financial or material contribution in the company but they have no right to manage.

The limited partnership is the second form of partnerships regulated in the Bulgarian Commercial Act. It differs from the general one in respect of the partners’ participation. There are two different types of partners to the limited partnerships – ones that bear unlimited liability (general partners) and ones that are only limitedly liable (limited partners). According to Article 99 of the Commercial Act, the limited partnership consists of at least one general and one limited partner.

The partnership is founded on the basis of a partnership contract. The trade name of the formation must contain the name of at least one of the limited partners. According to Article 101 (2) of the Commercial Act, a limited partner is deemed to bear unlimited liability, if his/her name is included in the trade name of a limited partnership. To found a Limited partnership, a registration in the Commercial Register is necessary.

The internal relationship between the limited partners is similar to the relationship between the partners of the general partnership, except for the rights and obligations. The general partners are obligated to deposit a contribution. This contribution determines their share in the future profits and their liquidations quatas. Also, limited partners are subject to the obligation of loyalty – without the consent of the other partners, one partner may not have got a rival commercial activity.

With regards to the external relationships of the company, the limited partners do not have got an important role. Mainly, they do not participate in the management unless they are expressly nominated to.

According to Article 112 of the Commercial Act, limited partners bear unlimited liability for legal transactions that have been conducted in the name of the partnership before or after its foundation, whenever the creditor did not know that he was contracting with a limited partner. Otherwise, limited partners bear liability toward the partnership’s creditors to the extent of the contribution made, even if it has not been paid completely. This provision also applies regarding losses of the partnership. In General partners bear personal, unlimited, joint and several liability.

Setting up a Business company in Bulgaria

The General partnership is a type of personal partnership formed by two or more persons to carry out the business of trading under a common company. The shareholders of the company shall be jointly and fully liable for its obligations. The liability of the partners is personal, unlimited and subsidiary regarding the obligations of the general partnership. Due to the last peculiarity, the general partnership belongs to the partnerships. Also, the personal participation of the partners in a formed partnership is characterised by the personal participation in business operations.

The trade name of the general partnership consists of the family names or the companies of one or more of the partners with the indication “general partnership” or cooperation (“& Co.” and should be of a national exclusivity.) The establishment of a general partnership does not require any initial capital. The contract for the establishment of a general partnership shall be established in writing with notarized signatures of the partners and shall contain the requisites set out in the provisions of Art. 78 of the Commercial Law.

The entry of a general partnership in the Commercial Register is based on an application form. The application for registration of the GP in the Commercial Register shall be signed by all partners and the Constituent Act shall be applied to it. Entry of a GP can be requested by any of the partners or by the person (s) who represent the company, according to the Company Contract, as well as by a lawyer with an explicit written power of attorney.LAWYER, LAWYERS IN BULGARIA

Rights of the partners

The material rights are as following:

–  Right on shares in profit in the end of the financial year (in case there is a profit).

–  Right on liquidation quota, if in case of a termination of the company assets remain that may be distributed amongst the partners.

–  Right on compensation of the costs regarding the execution of business missions, as well as of all damages that were directly caused when executing business missions. Basically, there is a right on all statutory interest.

The immaterial rights are as following:

– According to Article 84 of the Commercial Code, each partner is entitled to take part in the management of the partnership’s business.

– Voting right – an irrevocable right of the company members;

– Right of examination of each partner that does not participate in the management. It is a protective right each partner is entitled to exercise.

Legal relationship between the partners and third parties

According to Article 89 (1) of the Commercial Code, each partner of the general partnership is a representative of the partnership. The partner acts as a body of the partnership and does not need an authorisation. Restrictions towards third parties are only effective after a respective record into the commercial register. The power of representation may be limited within the Articles of Partnership. It may be transferred to one or more partners but also to a third party.

The most essential particularity of the general partnership is the unlimited personal liability of each of the partners for the debts of the partnership. According to Article 88 of the Commercial Code, the liability is subsidiary and limited on the assets of each partner. The debtors may only try to satisfy their claims by single partners, if the satisfaction by the general partnership became impossible. Each partner may raise any personal objections, as well as any of the partnership’s objections. All claims of the partnership creditors against the partners expire 5 years after the termination of the partnership or the expulsion of a partner, unless another time period applies.

In reverse, the general partnership is not liable for the debts of the partners – neither as a natural person nor as a legal entity. However, there is legal possibility of partnership creditors to obtain the seizure of their claims on the liquidation quotas and the termination of the general partnership. That may happen if he/she unsuccessfully pursued enforcement of the partnership’s movable property within the past 6 months. In this case, according to Article 96. (1), the creditor may attach that partner’s liquidation share and request the dissolution of the partnership upon a notice in writing pursuant to the procedure set forth in Article 94.

The conditions regarding the termination of general partnerships are listed in Article 93 of the Commercial Code:

– Upon request by a written notice of one of the partners in consideration of a time period of at least 6 months, if the partnership was founded for an undefined period.

– Upon request of one of the partners, it may be dissolved by the court if another partner violated an essential obligation of the Articles of Partnership intentionally or by gross negligence. Or, if the fulfilment of such an obligation becomes impossible or if a partner acts against the partnership’s interests.

– By the private creditors of one partner.

In spite of the expulsion of one of the partners, it is possible to carry on the partnership. In this case, according to Article 97 of the Commercial Code, the remaining partners are obligated to pay the share of the expulsed member in the company’s assets. In case of death of one of the partners, his/her heirs may take participation in the partnership, if the Articles of Association allow so.

The joint-stock company (JSC) is a type of a company whose capital is divided into shares. A JSC may be formed by one or more Bulgarian and/or foreign physical or legal persons. The total amount of shares in a JSC forms its capital. The shareholders are responsible for the obligations of the JSC to the sum of the contributions made without being liable with their own personal properties.The trade name of a joint-stock company includes the words “Joint-Stock Company” or the abbreviation “JSC” (in Bulgarian – ”AD”/Cyrillic – ”АД”). The Statute of a JSC shall contain the requisites specified in the provisions of Article 165 of the Commercial Law.

Documents for Selling Real Estate

Documents for Selling Real Estate

The minimum amount of capital required for establishment of a JSC is 50 000 BGN (about 25 8000 EUR). However, the minimum required for banking or insurance activity, voluntary health insurance or other special activity is determined by other law.

The Bulgarian law allows two alternatives for management and representation of a joint-stock company – shareholders can choose between a one-tier and a two-tier management system. Foreigners can be appointed as managers of the company without any restrictions. The corporate governance structure of a joint-stock company consists of: a General Assembly of shareholders and a Board of Directors (in the case of a one-tier management system), or a Supervisory Board and a Management Board (in the case of a two-tier management system).

Entry of the JSC is stated by the members of the Board of Directors (in the case of a one- tier management system) or by the Management Board (in the case of a two-tier management system), or is empowered by the Statute or an authorized member of the management bodies of the JSC, as well as by a lawyer with an explicit written power of attorney. For commercial companies, the time required for entry or deletion in the Commercial Register is the end of the first working day following filing the required documents. On requests for registration of new circumstances, the registrars are obliged to act immediately.  

Rights and obligations of the stockholders

The rights and obligations of the stockholders derive from the respective stock. According to Article 181 (3), sentence 2, all stockholders of the same stock class must be treated equally. On the contrary, the stockholders of different classes may be entitled to different rights. The single stock and the rights that derive from it – hereof, rights and obligations are transferred simultaneously. Exceptionally, it is possible to transfer specific rights under legally defined conditions. According to Article 185 (3) of the Commercial Act, voting rights may be transferred for a certain time period, if the stock has been transferred, as well. The rights of the stockholders may not be infringed, unless the respective stockholders had givrn their consent when subscribing the shares. The right of dividend is an irresolvable right of the stockholders. Also, a division into material and immaterial rights and obligations is possible. Moreover, the stockholders enjoy different individual and collective rights.

How to set up a Joint-Stock Company in Bulgaria

Joint-stock company 

Legal framework – The Commerce Act; the Commercial Register Act and the competent authority is the Bulgarian Commercial Register with the Registry Agency.

The nessesery legal steps of the entire procedure of registration of Joint Stock company (plc – public company) is following : 

1)       Checking up with the electronic register of the Commercial Register and/or reservation of a business name.

2)       Holding of an Incorporation Meeting, subscription of shares by the founders, adoption of Articles of Association or an Act of Incorporation, election of a Supervisory and Managing Boards, respectively of a Board of Directors.

3)       Depositing the company capital into a special capital raising account (the minimum capital amount is 50 000 BGN- 27 000 EUR).

4)       In case of any specific business, an authorisation or license by the competent authority shall be provided when filing the documents with the Commercial Register.

The documents, which are required and we prepare in full as a set registration are following :  

– Preparation & drafting of application for registration.

– Preparation & drafting of articles of Association or Act of Incorporation.Hereditary Cases Lawyer

– Preparation & drafting of  Minutes of the shareholders’ Meeting of Incorporation.

– Preparation & drafting of  attendance list of the incorporation meeting.

– Preparation & drafting of list of the subscribers of shares at the incorporation meeting.

– Preparation & drafting of declaration pursuant to Article 160, paragraph 2 of the Commerce Act.

– Preparation & drafting of specimen (signature) of an every executive director.

– Preparation & drafting of declaration under Article 234, paragraph  2 and paragraph 3 of the Commerce Act. – Declaration under Article 237 of the Commerce Act.

– Preparation & drafting of  Minutes from the meeting of the Board of Directors.

– Preparation of application for applying of certificate of the deposited capital issued by a bank.

– Preparation & drafting of resolution of the managing body representing a shareholder who is a legal entity.

– Preparation & drafting of  Certificate of good Statement of the relevant business register regarding a shareholder who is a foreign legal entity.

– Preparation & drafting of legal document evidencing payment of the state fee for incorporation of a company.

– Preparation & drafting of declaration under Article 13, paragraph 4 of the Commercial Register Act signed by the applying managing director.

– Preparation & drafting of  nessesery license or permit according to any special law on the performance of a specific business.

 

Terms & conditions for set up of public company in Bulgaria

For an application for registration or deregistration – no later than the end of the first business day after its acceptance.

For an application for notification, it is immediately.

Limited Liability Company in Bulgaria (Ltd.)

Limited liability company (LLC)  is a type of a capital company which can be established by two or more Bulgarian and foreign physical or legal persons. The management structure of a Ltd. consists of a General Assembly of shareholders and one or more managers who manage the company and represent it in respect to third parties.

A limited liability company may be formed also by one person and in this case it is a single/sole-member limited liability company (SMLtd) A Ltd. company is established on the basis of a company contract that ought to be concluded in writing. The name of the company shall contain the words “Limited Liability Company” or the abbreviation “Ltd.”, and should be of a national exclusivity.

Registration of a company

Registration of a company

The entry of a Ltd. in the Commercial Register is based on an application form. It must be stated personally by the Manager/Managers of the company or a lawyer with an explicit written power of attorney. Regarding the Bulgarian legislation, only a physical person can be a manager of Ltd. The manager may be a partner or a third party. There are no restrictions on a foreign person to be appointed as a director of a Ltd.

The capital of a limited liability company cannot be less than 1 Euro (minimum 2 BGN). It consists of the shares of the partners which must not be less than 1 BGN/each. Partners can bring both cash and non-cash contributions. Non-cash contributions are subject to mandatory assessment by three independent experts appointed by the Registry Agency.

The shares of a Limited liability company are not a  subject to trading. They can be transferred with a notarized contract for transfer of shares. The one between shareholders does not require a decision of the General Meeting. Otheriwse, the transfer of shares to a third party, as well as the adoption of a new partner does require such a decision.

Rights and obligations of the shareholders

According to the Bulgarian Law, the members of a Ltd. have got rights such as the following: right to dividend and liquidation quota, amoral rights like right to participate in the management of the company, as well as to be elected as a manager. Immaterial rights include: accessing company’s information, supervising the meetings of the General Assembly, etc. Shareholders have got a financial obligation – it is payment of contributions. Non-compliance with these obligations could result in exclusion of a partner. Immaterial liabilities include participation in the management of the company, implementation of decisions taken by the General Assembly. Competition is absolutely prohibited both for the partners and the manager.

 

Registration of a Limited Liability Company/ sole-Owner LLC  

Usually the legal framework for company set up in Bulgaria is following – Commerce Act; Commercial Register Act etc.. The competent authority is the Bulgarian Commercial Register with the Registry Agency.

Now we would like to inform you for all nessesery legal steps of the entire procedure of company registration. Our legal work start from the same beggining of preparation of the paperwork & documents as: 

1) Checking up with the electronic register of the Commercial Register and/or reservation of a business name.

2)Holding of an Incorporation Meeting, adoption of a Memorandum of Association or an Act of Incorporation, appointment of managing director/s.

3)Depositing the company capital into a special capital raising account (the minimum capital amount is 1 Euro (minimum 2 BGN).

4) In case of any specific business, an authorisation by the competent authority shall be provided when filing the documents with the Commercial Register.

 

The list of the documents, which are required for every company registration is following

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– Preparation & drafting of Application form for registration.

– Preparation & drafting ofMemorandum of Association or Act of Incorporation.

– Preparation & drafting of Minutes of the Meeting of Incorporation of the company.

– Preparation & drafting of docuiment for Specimen *(signatures) of all appointed managing directors/ managers of the company.

– Preparation & drafting of declaration pursuant to Article 142 of the Commerce Act signed by each of the appointed managing directors.

– Preparation & drafting of declaration pursuant to Article 141, paragraph 8 of the Commerce Act signed by each of the appointed managing directors.

– Preparation & drafting of Certificate of the deposited capital issued by a bank.

– Preparation & drafting of resolution of the body managing and representing a member who is a legal entity.

–  Preparation & drafting of Certificate of good statement from the relevant business register regarding a member who is a foreign legal entity.

– Preparation & drafting of document evidencing payment of the state fee for incorporation of a limited-liability company.

– Preparation & drafting of declaration under Article 13, paragraph 4 of the Commercial Register Act signed by the applying managing director.

– Preparation & drafting of relevant license or permit according to any special law on the performance of a specific business.

 

After the first initial steps of preparation of documents, we would like to advise you for the legal terms of the entire registration process : 

For submitting an application for registration or deregistration before the Bulgarian commercial register, we need about 5-7 business days after its acceptance of the documents