Transfer Company shares LLC Bulgaria
The most common and most popular legal-organizational form for performing micro, small or even medium business in Bulgaria is Limited Liability Company. Through the registration of a company, usually a small number of partners of shares resources and efforts to carry out their business project.
But often different reasons, both objective and subjective, lead to situations in which one or more partners leave the company.
When leaving the company without the consent of the other partners, it is necessary to carry out and terminate the procedure of unilateral departure of the company. It is initiated by sending a notice under Art. 125, para. 2 and 3 Commercial Code. However, when leaving the company it is agreed and shared with the other partners, it is done by transferring the shares held to the other partners or to a third party with a contract.
The transfer of shares, even when the company is sole proprietor, should be distinguished from the transfer of a company and the transfer of an undertaking.
Shares, a company, and an enterprise are three differenmet concepts and three different object deals respectively. According to the Commercial Law, a company is the name under which the trader exercises his trade and is signed. The business firm may only be transferred with the enterprise but may be changed by the trader at its own discretion at any time.
The enterprise, for its part, represents a set of rights, obligations and factual relationships. The transfer of the enterprise (in whole or in part) is a transaction other than the transfer of the shares in the company.
The parties to the transfer agreement are the traders themselves (ET or companies) and the parties to the share transfer agreement are the owners of these shares (natural or legal person) and their purchaser (natural or legal person).
After transferring the property, the property rights (property, cars, belongings, inventory, receivables, debts, etc.) are transferred from one trader to another, whereas, after the transfer of shares, these assets remain the property of the same company. this company.
Transfer of shares from Bulgarian LLC
The transfer of shares is regulated in Art. 129 Commercial Code. When this transfer occurs between partners, it becomes free (unless otherwise provided in the Company Agreement). However, if the shares are transferred not to a third person or persons, it is necessary that the buyers apply for their admission to the company, which is considered by the General Meeting. Ie. the transfer of shares to outsiders is made by the will of the other partners. On the basis of the submitted application a General Meeting is convened, which votes and decides on the admission of a new partner in the company. The decision is taken by a multiple of ¾ of the capital, unless a larger majority is provided for in the company agreement. This decision is formed in a protocol, which (in view of amendments to Article 137 of the Commercial Code) should be with a notary certification of the signatures and the content.
If the General Meeting approves the planned shareholding, a share transfer contract is prepared. Shares can be transferred at both a nominal and an agreed (market) price – lower or higher. The contract is notarized on both the signatures and the content.
Changes in the Commerce Act since the end of 2017 have also introduced a new requirement for the transfer of shares – whether between partners or outsiders. The new requirements were included in Art. 129 of the Commercial Code.
According to them, for the transfer of the shares, the company should have no outstanding salaries, indemnities and compulsory social security contributions of the employees, including employees, whose employment relationship was terminated within three years prior to the transfer of the shareholding.
However, it has not been clear from the changes what document the fulfilment of this requirement is, and the changes that have been made so far should be further modified to clarify the procedure.
Thus, in mid-February 2018, the law was supplemented, that in the Commercial Register, declarations in a form drawn up by the Company Manager and the transferor of the shares are submitted that the company has no outstanding and outstanding obligations of this kind. A model for such a declaration shall be drawn up by the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Labor and Social Policy.
After application of the declarations, the transfer of the shares is entered in the Commercial Register, but the Registry Agency is obliged to immediately inform the Executive Department “Main Labour Agency”, which can verify the authenticity of the declared facts. In the event that discrepancies between the declared circumstances and the reality are found, GI EA notifies the Prosecutor’s Office of the possible involvement of the pshareively responsible detractors. that the company has no outstanding and outstanding obligations of this kind.
A model for such a declaration shall be drawn up by the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Labor and Social Policy.
After application of the declarations, the transfer of the shares is entered in the Commercial Register, but the Registry Agency is obliged to immediately inform the Executive Department “Main Labour Agency”, which can verify the authenticity of the declared facts. In the event that discrepancies between the declared circumstances and the reality are found, GI EA notifies the Prosecutor’s Office of the possible involvement of the pshareively responsible detractors. that the company has no outstanding and outstanding obligations of this kind. A model for such a declaration shall be drawn up by the Minister of Justice and the Minister of Labor and Social Policy. After application of the declarations, the transfer of the shares is entered in the Commercial Register, but the Registry Agency is obliged to immediately inform the Executive Department “Main Labour Agency”, which can verify the authenticity of the declared facts. In the event that discrepancies between the declared circumstances and the reality are found, Executive Department “Main Labour Agency”, notifies the Prosecutor’s Office of the possible involvement of the pshareively responsible detractors. but the Registry Agency is obliged to immediately notify the IA “GLP”, which can verify the authenticity of the declared facts. In the event that discrepancies between the declared circumstances and the reality are found, GI EA notifies the Prosecutor’s Office of the possible involvement of the pshareively responsible detractors. but the Registry Agency is obliged to immediately notify the IA “GLP”, which can verify the authenticity of the declared facts. In the event that discrepancies between the declared circumstances and the reality are found, GI EA notifies the Prosecutor’s Office of the possible involvement of the pshareively responsible detractors.
After the shares are transferred, a new general meeting is convened, in which the new owners – who have acquired the quality of partners – participate. At that meeting a decision is taken to accept and sign a new company contract and to enter the changes in the Commercial Register. Other decisions can also be taken at this meeting (seat, address of management, company, etc.). If the old partner was also a manager (except a partner), and if the new manager is also planned, a decision is made at that meeting to release the old and appoint the new partner as manager.
Entry in the Commercial Register is made by submitting an application Form A4, which is signed and deposited by the manager of the company. The law lacks the empowerment of the old shareholder who has ceased participating in the company, if he is not a manager; declare the entry of the change. The record of the new manager shall also be accompanied by documents related to this quality (specimen, declarations, etc.). Adoption of a new partner has effect vis-à-vis third parties from its entry in the Commercial Register.
Transfer of shares from Bulgarian LLC
A particular feature of the transfer of shares in such a company is that the owner is a single person. That’s why the only partner is called the sole owner of the capital. This sole proprietor can transfer all or part of its shares. In the second case, the company will be transformed into OOD.
For the transfer, a decision of the sole proprietor is required, which is reflected in a notarized record. Following is the conclusion of a contract for the sale of the shares, which is also certified notary. In the case of transfer of shares in EOOD no applications for the admission of a new partner are prepared and submitted as a party to the share transfer contract is the sole shareholder in the company. However,the requirements of Art. 129, para. 2 Commercial Code for lack of obligations are valid here as well.
After the transfer of the shares, the new sole owner takes a decision on the dismissal and appointment of a manager, the adoption of a new instrument of incorporation, as well as other changes upon request. If the sole proprietor transfers only part of his shares, these decisions are taken by all the partners.
Nature and characteristics of the transfer
With the transfer of shares, in practice, the membership of the company is transferred and its personnel is changed. Both membership rights and obligations, including non-material ones, are transferred. The transfer may only take place if the shares sold are not apprehended for the obligations of the owner and the divestment is entered in the TP. The transfer itself can take the form of a sale or sale, but it can also be shaped like a donation, a replacement, a contribution, etc. If the case vendor has not paid in full its share contribution, 130 and both parties to the transaction are jointly and severally liable for this outstanding obligation. Shares may be held in joint ownership (one share is sold to several persons), unless the Company Agreement prohibits this. Theoretically, where shares are held in joint ownership by several individuals, it is possible to transfer an ideal part of the share – Art. 132 ТЗ.
In order to carry out the procedure and record the transfer to the Commercial Register, different fees are payable. All notarial certification of the signatures and the content of the documents applied shall be paid in accordance with the Tariff of Notary Fees to the LIND.
Register tour operator
Bulgarian travel agency or tour operator businesses can be conducted only by Bulgarian companies that are listed in the Register of Tour Operators and Travel Agents, part of Bulgarian National Tourism Register. The registration is made with the Ministry of Economy, Energy and Tourism upon filing an application by the candidate together with a number of documents confirming that the applicant matches the criteria specified in Bulgarian Tourism Act and sub delegated legislation. Below we have summarized some of the basic registration requirements prescribed in Bulgarian Laws.
To begin with, those who want to be listed as Bulgarian tour operators and / or travel agencies must be:
- Either merchants (Bulgarian companies) registered as per Bulgarian Commercial Act or
- Legal entities entitled to conduct business under any other law of an EU member state country or another country within the European Economic Area
Any of the above two categories have the opportunity to register as full-service providers or online providers of tour operator or travel agency / tour operator services. The second option is relatively easier. Tour operators and agents that offer only online services benefit from a simpler registration regime and fewer application documents for their listing.
Generally the requirements can be classified in 5 groups:
Requirements to the professional qualification, education and experience of the person who will manage the Bulgarian tour operator or tourist agent activity;
Requirements to the staff – education, language skills and work experience;
Requirements to the premises (front office) where the business will be physically conducted;
Requirements related to the insurance of the tour operator / tour agent in Bulgaria;
Additionally to the above, the applicant must show proof that it is not under a liquidation or insolvency procedure; it has not operated as a tour operator or travel agent without a license for the last 12 months; its certificate for registration has not been cancelled for the last 12 months.
With our service we for tour operator, touristic agency:
- We will complete the registration procedure for your new company as a tour operator and / or travel agent for you.
• We will prepare, fill in and submit the necessary documentation for your company registration in the Tour Operator Register and Travel Agents. • We will provide appropriate training and qualification for your staff if you need them. • We will save you valuable time, and with our knowledge and skills we will carry out the entire registration procedure of a tour operator / travel agent in the Register of Tour Operators and Travel Agents for you at moderate competitive prices.
- The operation of the registration and the registration certificate is indefinite.
- Registered persons are issued a registration certificate, which is placed in a prominent position on the tourist site.
- The tourist voucher is issued for domestic and outbound tourism only by a registered tour operator.
- The tourist voucher can be provided to the tourist and travel agent only in the name and on behalf of a registered tour operator.
- The travel agent is not allowed to issue his / her own tourist voucher.
If you have any queries or ambiguities regarding the registration of a tour operator or travel agent, contact the team through the ONLINE CONSULTATION form and ask your question.
REGISTRATION OF A BRANCH
The dynamics of modern business relations can make you aware of the necessity of doing business in different settlements. If you have such a need, you are generally faced with three options for doing business:
A) register individual “subsidiaries” of trading companies and through them to carry out your business. With this option new companies are emerging and they have separate business enterprises. The common between them is in the owner who owns them, but in the case of third parties they are completely independent subjects;
B) to disclose retail outlets (warehouses, shops, etc.) in the different settlements, without creating new companies and operating in them. In this situation, no new legal entity emerges – a company, the trader himself engages in legal relationships with third parties. Commercial sites are fully subordinate and dependent on the trader;
B) register a branch through which to separate the performance of part of your activity in a settlement other than that in which your company has its registered office.
The branch is a legal-organizational form for carrying out a business activity in which a trader (firm), through a relative separation of part of its activity, carries it out in a settlement other than that in which its seat is located.
In the internal relations, the branch is dependent on the trader and this dependence is manifested in different directions, for example in:
A) the lack of an independent firm, and the branch company includes the trader’s firm and the branch add-on;
(B) the branch is part of the trader’s business (and, if transferred, the branch is transferred). In disputes arising out of a direct relationship with a branch, claims are brought against the firm (as may be done at the headquarters of the branch);
B) the termination of the trader also leads to the termination of the branch (the same applies when the bankruptcy is declared);
D) the branch does not compile a stand-alone balance – the branch leads commercial books as a sole trader without compiling a separate balance sheet. (Branches of legal persons who are not traders within the meaning of this law, and the branches of foreign persons also compose a balance sheet).
Registration of a branch
1. decision on the establishment of a branch;
2. election of a branch manager;
3. Entry in the Commercial Register (TP).
The decision to register a branch is taken by the competent corporate body under the rules of the relevant commercial company:
The decision should contain a clear intention to establish a branch and its headquarters, address of management, subject of activity, manner of management.
The manager of the branch is chosen by the authority competent to decide on the establishment of a branch. The decision of election also determines the volume of its representative power. The relationship with the manager of a branch should be settled by a management contract specifying the rights and obligations of the manager. Upon the registration of the branch, the manager must present a notarized consent to be a manager and a specimen of his signature.
Upon registration of a branch of a foreign trader in the TP, the following are attached:
1. the document establishing the existence of the foreign person (if he is a legal person), his right to trade under his national law, the name of the persons representing the foreign trader according to the register in which he is registered (if any); the way of representation;
2. the decision of the foreign trader (firm) to open a branch;
3. if the subject of activity of the foreign trader’s branch is subject to an authorization regime, the relevant license or permit shall apply;
4. the memorandum, the contract or the statutes of the foreign trader containing all amendments at the moment of filing the application for registration of the foreign merchant branch as well as a copy of the instrument of incorporation, the contract or the statutes of the foreign trader in which the personal data , other than those required by law, are deleted;
5. the authority with a notarized signature of the person who manages the branch of the foreign trader (firm);
6. the notarized consent and the specimen of the signature of the person managing the branch of the foreign trader;
7. the document (diploma, certificate of the BNB, etc.) for the professional qualification or the capacity of the manager / managers according to the requirements of a law;
8.other documents as required by law.
All documents for the registration of a branch of a Bulgarian or a foreign company are filed in the Commercial Register in Bulgarian. Documents may also be presented in any of the official languages of the European Union. In this case, the documents shall be submitted together with a translation into Bulgarian. The translation of official documents is done by an interpreter to a company that has signed a contract with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on the grounds of Art. 2a, para. 2 of the Regulations on Legalizations,
Certification and Translation of Documents and Other Papers. The fact that the translator was registered with a company that had signed a contract with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, shall be certified by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the signature of the translator or an explicit certificate together with a statement by the translator that he has not been removed from the list at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In the event of a discrepancy between the text of the document and the translation into Bulgarian, the translation is in Bulgarian.
Changing manager LLC Bulgaria
Change in the manner of management and representation or change of the person (s) representing the company
A change in the management of a company may occur when two or more persons are elected in the place of a manager to represent and manage the company together or separately, as well as the appointment of a procurator.
I. In the Commercial Law an option is provided by the manager of the company aloneto request it to be removed from the Commercial Register by giving written notice to the company.
Within one month of receipt of the notification, the company must declare its release in the Commercial Register for entry.
If the company does not do so, the manager may himself file for registration the fact that is entered, whether or not another person is elected in his place. In a nutshell, in order for the manager or the liquidator to declare the deletion alone, the law provided for the existence of two prerequisites – the manager / liquidator / requested the deletion by written notification to the company and the company had not declared its deletion in within one month of receipt of the notification.
The second and more frequent reason for change of manager in OOD is
- Election of a new governor after the expiry of the mandate of the old governor or
- Withdrawal of the manager’s authorization at any time during his term of office,
- Resignition of the manager.
Empowerment of the manager may be withdrawn at any time and his name deleted from the commercial register.
The freedom of the general assembly to free the governor at any time, respectively to elect a new governor, is imperatively regulated by the legislator, and it results from the free withdrawal of empowerment (including empowerment).
There is a complete correspondence between the possibility of the general meeting of the company to withdraw the authorization of the manager / for the dismissal of the manager / as provided in Art. 141, para. 5 of the Commercial Act, the unilateral withdrawal of the manager, with a written notification to the company. The possibility of a free change of the manager is related to the fact that the legislator did not introduce grounds for the dismissal of the manager.
Even in cases where such a foundation is provided in the company agreement, they could not overcome imperatively the art. 141, para. 4 of the CG freedom of the General Assembly to withdraw the authorization, but such grounds would have significance in the search of the manager’s responsibility.
The change of the manager of the company should be entered in the Commercial Register.
Upon the change of the current manager, it is necessary to conclude a new written contract for the assignment of the management on behalf of the company, also the general meeting must take a decision to amend the company contract if the management and representation of the company change are the essential elements of the contract.
This decision must be taken by a majority of more than three-quarters of the capital unless a majority of the company’s agreement is provided.
The decision shall be drawn up with a notary authentication of the signatures and the contents made at the same time, unless a written agreement is provided in the Articles of Association.
The decision shall be entered in the record book. In LLC, a change in the way of management most often means assigning the management of EOOD to a procurator, but it is possible to appoint a governor if the constitutive act does not exclude the possibility of appointing a third party manager.
The procedure for entry in the Commercial Register and the register of non-profit legal entities lasts three working days.
Our legal services includes:
1. Drafting & preparation of the necessary documents, according to the requirements of the Commerce Act;
2. Drafting of applications of the Registry Agency – Commercial Register and all other necessary documents;
3. Transfer & payment of Register state fee for recording changes in circumstances;
4. Transfer of all state fee for Commercial Register, bank Fees;
With our service we will save you valuable time, with our knowledge and skills we will complete the entire procedure for you at moderate competitive prices.
Applying transport licence Bulgaria
This development concerns the registration of a freight transport company within the European Union (the procedure for registering a freight transport company on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is similar).
Any transport company applying for a freight license must meet certain specific requirements, namely:
At the same time, the transport company must have no tax and social security obligations unless it is deferred or deferred under the Tax and Social Insurance Procedure Code, as evidenced by the Certificate for the existence or absence of tax liabilities.
Judicial division of property
Judicial split – When co-owners fail to understand how to divide their property voluntarily and turn their ideal parts into real, they can turn to the court. This way of termination of the co-ownership is settled as a particularly indisputable production, which takes place in two phases .
Any joint proprietor may file a claim for a division, which is always subject to the district court of the place of inheritance (in the case of a division of inheritance) or the location of the property (in the case of a split of a real estate). Where incapacity or abstention is involved in the partition, prior permission of the District Court is required.
Division by Court settlement. In any case of a court case (prior to the entry into force of the court decision on the distribution of the property), the judicial separation may end with a court settlement. The latter includes a contract between the parties for the distribution of properties and a definition by which the court approves the settlement if it does not contradict the requirements of the law and good morals.
A particular type of court settlement is the agreement of the spouses to divide their property upon divorce by mutual consent.
FEATURES OF THE JUDICIAL DIVISION ARE FOLLOWING:
– First phase of the judicial split of property
In the first phase of the partition the issues between who will be partitioned, which properties and what is the part of each ofthe partitioners are clarified .
The action for partition is not extinguished by prescription. The subject matter of a division may be all or part of the property, unless the law provides otherwise, or if it is incompatible with the nature or purpose of the property. If one of the co-owners does not take part in the division, it is entirely null and void.
The court decides by a decision on the admissibility of the division, which is subject to self-appeal, after its entry into force, a new hearing is scheduled and the division continues in its second phase.
At the request of some of the distributors, the court ruled on the issue of the temporary distribution of the use of the property until the end of the divestment and the sums that the users should pay to the others.
– Second phase of the judicial split of property
In the second phase of the division a real distribution of the shares admitted to partition is made between the parties that are recognized as co-owners and according to the established shares with the court decision of the first phase of the admission of the division. Whenever possible, each of the partitioners should receive a real share of the objects subject to the divestment, as the units are equalized with money.
In the second phase of the division, if submitted, the following shall also be considered:
- the claims on the accounts of the distributors to recognize the costs he has incurred to increase the value of the property
- claims to increase the inheritance (inheritance split)
- as well as for the assignment of an indivisible residential property (in the case of a divorce of a matrimonial property community or an inheritance).
The casting may be done by drawing lots or by partitioning where the prerequisites provided for in law are available. Where a property is unalterable and can not be placed in one of the lots, the court shall order it to be put out for public sale.
This phase of the division ends with a court decision that has the power of a notary deed on shared real estate and is subject to entry in the Registry Office on the location of the property.
– Public sale of the real estate
Upon completion of the partition procedure, it is possible to reach a public sale when the object of the division is an inseparable property that is not assigned to any of the partitioners (Article 354 (1) of the CCP) or when, after being placed in a share the co-ordinator has not paid to the remaining amount determined by the court for equalization of the units within six months from the entry into force of the award decision (Art.349, para 6 of the Civil Procedure Code).
Where the co-owner to whom the property is awarded fails to pay the remaining monetary equation within six months, the award decision is invalidated by law and the property is exported to a public auction.
.In this case, the property may not be sold for public sale and assigned to another co-owner if it has made a request for an assignment, the legal prerequisites are in place, and he immediately pays the price at which the property is valued at the split, less the value of his share in it.
When making the sale, the distributors take precedence over the third parties involved in the sale, each of them being able to buy the property at the highest bid. If several distributors wish to redeem the property at the highest price offered at the first sale, a new sale is only made between these dividers, which is carried out under the general rules.
After that the actual distribution is executed. With the help of an expert the court divides the real estate by creating of separate shares for each co-owner after which each of them receives his property by lot.
If the divided property is non-dividable and it can not be put into one of the shares then according to the art. 348 of the Civil and Procedural Code such property should be sold on a public sale which the parties can attend and where they can bid.
If the indivisible property represents a dwelling unit then according to the art. 349 para. 2 of the Civil and Procedural Code each of the co-partitioners who, upon the opening of the succession resided therein and does not own another dwelling unit, may move that the said dwelling unit be allocated to the share thereof, with the shares of the rest of the co-partitioners being equalized by another immovable or by money. Where several co-partitioners satisfying the conditions of sentence one lay claims to allocation of the immovable to the share thereof, preference shall be given to the co-partitioner who offers a higher price.
Each party of the case for judicial division pays the outstanding court fees according to the market price of the received share. There are no obstacles for the parties to make an agreement about the way of termination of the co-ownership during the judicial division and to arrange a court settlement.
DIVISION OF JOINTLY OWNED REAL ESTATE
The ownership right over one real estate may belong to one or to several persons. When one property has more than one owner than the type of ownership is called co-ownership.
The main option for termination of such co-ownership is division of the real estate. The main consequence of a division is that after such procedure the co-ownership is terminated and each of former co-owners receives individual property (or money equivalent relevant to the part of the property that belonged to him).
The main prerequisites for execution of a division deal are the following: the real estate or estates to be actually divisible and possibility of creating of the shares that would be equal to the part of each co-owner, i.e. the possibility for division of the existing real estate into new separate real estates according to the current legislation.
If the co-owners of a property want to separate it from one another but can not reach consensus, an arbitrator in the dispute is needed . Judicial split is the most unpleasant way because it is tough, slow and expensive.
The divestment can be done in all cases of joint ownership – hereditary property, the dissolution of a matrimonial property community acquired through a common commercial property, the liquidation of a common right to build or overbuilding and overbuilding.
Before proceeding with a court case, try to convince the co-owners to divide the property voluntarily. If they disagree, then you can take the necessary action as a last resort .
You can pursue a case yourself as you file for a partition. Judicial partition is binding on all co-owners, even if they do not want to. When they are brought, they have no choice.
Or offer them to redeem your share, and if they disagree, you offer a buyer who agrees or you go to court.
The lawyer reveals that it is common for co-owners to agree on a voluntary partition during the first phase of the partition.
With regard to court fees , each of the dividers pays them according to the value of the share received after the division. State fees are paid at the end of the partition.
If you settle and divide the property in the first phase of the division, the state fee will be 2% of the value of the share received. If the court carries out the division, the fee is 4% of the value of the dividend. The value is determined by the valuation of an expert , who is also remunerated, usually different, depends on the property value, but the court still determines his remuneration.
There are also other fees for filing the application , the court settlement or the court’s decision, depending on which option will be made. The fee for filing the claim is 0.1% of the value, in this case the tax assessment.
You and your co-owners will choose which one is best for you.
The case for one court split is quite long . All co-owners are required to participate. In addition, judgments can be appealed, which can greatly prolong the divestment and follow-up.
There are fees for expertise, for lawyers’ fees, real estate valuation, circumstantial checks, and sometimes it can take years. In general, the court partition is expensive “pleasure”.
If a property is unalterable, it goes to a public sale . It is best to reach a settlement after the first court decision passes – it will give you an answer which is what share is, what is shared and who it is shared with. The second court decision answers who gets what.
The expert assesses, arranges bills between co-owners, and so on.
Divorce procedures Bulgaria
For many Bulgarian citizens, the concept of “divorce” is associated with stress and material loss, and so many people prefer not to take action on their personal lives, hoping that over time they will all sort and do not apply for divorce.
Divorce in Bulgaria is subject to the Family law in Bulgaria, governed by the Bulgarian Family code that settles relations based on marriage, kinship adoption, as well as well as guardianship and tutelage. In Bulgaria, divorce procedures could be done in two ways:
- Divorce by mutual agreement or
- Divorce through breakdown of marriage, when both spouses are Bulgarian citizens. As such, the Bulgarian legislation is applicable.
As relationships get worse, spouses acquire children, different property is acquired, but in fact the family does not exist in the meaning of this concept of morality and law.
Suddenly he / she / decides that they want more than life and divorce, which is often absolutely unexpected for the other partner who should take action to get out of this unpleasant situation with minimal mental and material loss.
Divorce due to marriage disorder is a procedure that aims to end marriage due to a “deep and irreparable” disorder (Article 49 Family code). The claim is constitutive, is brought to the district court on the defendant’s permanent address.
The court is seized with the filing of a claim by one of the spouses meeting the requirements of the CPC and containing the requisite requisites – addressee, country data, relevant annexes, etc. and the request to the court to settle a divorce due to a deep and irreparable marriage disorder.
The personal appearance of the parties is mandatory at the first hearing. A consequence of the plaintiff’s unreasonable failure to appear is termination of the case.
The legal procedure of divorce by claim order
The legal regulation of the procedure has been describen in art. 49-52 Family code.,
A divorce by mutual consent is preferred when both parties agree on the reasons for divorce and the court allows for the procedure to take place without investigating the cause for the dissolution of the marriage.
This is the simplest type of divorce in Bulgaria and the costs involved in the procedure are much lower than in other cases.
Spouses must come to an agreement regarding the custody of the children, visiting rights, the division of the property acquired during the marriage, the use of the family name etc.
The evidence of the deep and irreparable disorder of divorce, which is the basis for divorce cases, must be proven in a competitive process .
The Court should establish the reasons for the occurrence of a temporary and disruptive disorder, but its profound and irreparable disorder – these may be objective circumstances, and or marital malfeasance of one or both of the spouses.
Divorce proceedings in Bulgaria due to marriage disruption should be initiated by only one spouse . If there is mutual consent for the divorce, proceed according to Art. 50 of Family Code – divorce by mutual consent.
Account should be taken of the restrictive legal norm of Art. 320 of the Code of Civil Procedure, according to which the divorce proceedings are suspended if the wife is pregnant (until the child’s 12 months of age) if she so requests.
Matrimonial claims must also be respected. procedural consumption (exhaustiveness of the marriage process), according to art. 322 of the Civil Procedure Code and according to the mandatory for the courts Interpretative Decision No. 1 / 4.01.2001. of the SCCS of the SCC:
Art. 322. (1) In a claim for divorce, the plaintiff must provide all grounds for the profound and irreparable marriage disorder. Any reasons not mentioned, which occurred and became known to the spouse until the oral hearing is completed, can not serve as a basis for bringing a new claim for divorce.
As stated above, as the basis for the divorce claim is the deep and irreparable disorder of marriage judged by concrete facts proving it, each of these facts is in itself a ground of claim. If a plea is not mentioned in the case, it is overturned and can not serve as a new claim on the basis of that fact. Therefore, all the facts of family life justifying the occurrence of a profound and irreparable marriage disorder should be indicated by the end of the oral hearings.
- For exercising parental rights;
- On personal relationships and child support;
- Using the family home;
- Maintenance between spouses and surname.
At the request of one of the parties, the court may prescribe temporary measures on the care and maintenance of minor children from marriage (if any), the use of family housing and other property acquired during marriage, etc. questions. The provisional measures shall have effect until the final decision is taken.
When selecting a divorce lawsuit – DIVORCE by mutual consent or DIVORCE by legal claim, apart from always the individual and personal specificities of the particular case, the due fees for the proceedings should be known and taken into account:
State fee are payable upon filing of the application. It is paid to the account of the relevant District Court.
Final state fee should be paid on the account of the respective District Court in case of divorce. 2 per cent on maintenance payments for 3 years maintenance fees for the child on bank account of the District Court.
Other costs may arise in the proceedings, such as expert opinions on one or other matter, the value of which is different and depending on the complexity of the expert’s task.
The burden of all costs in the case – state fees, lawyers’ fees, expert opinions are assigned to the guilty or ill-conscious spouse when there is a ruling on the guilt (according to the norm of Article 49, paragraph 3 of the Family Code, the ruling on wine matters is no longer official, but only if one of the spouses has requested such a ruling) or remains at the expense of each of the parties – as they have done in the course of the proceedings.
In this comment, the issues of divorce proceedings are examined in principle.
Always consider and choose the procedure best suited to the specific case.
Our family law office provides legal consultations and representation during the contested divorce – a procedure that is quite emotional for the parties.
The information provided below will help you find more about this procedure.
If you need our assistance please call us on + 359 897 90 43 91 or send us a mail email@example.com
Trade representation office
Many of our clients are foreign entities wishing to register a commercial agency or branch office of a foreign legal entity in Bulgaria. In this regard, working as lawyers in commercial cases in Bulgaria, we would like to inform you that all foreign persons engaged in commercial activities may open commercial offices in our country.
Commercial representation of foreign person has got the right to operate an independent business. The regime of any commercial representation of foreign legal entity in Bulgaria is regulated by the Law on Investment Promotion (IPA).
When establishing trade representation of foreign legal entities, they must register in the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BCCI). For the establishment of foreign investments under Bulgarian law, in addition to five different companies listed above, the investor may choose one of the following corporate forms:
- OPEN a Branch office or
- OPEN a trade representation.
A commercial legal entitywhich has got the right to perform commercial activity under its national law, may register a branch in the Commercial Register. The branch is not considered as a separate legal entity. The branch is not required to have any paid up capital or separate governance structure. Its assets and liabilities are considered of the mother company.
Foreign persons authorized to do business under their national law may establish a representative offices in Bulgaria. A representative office is registered at the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce. The office is not a separate legal entity and cannot carry on business activity. Thus, the purpose of the representative office is to perform activities such as promotions, exhibitions, demonstrations, training and advertising of products or services.
Registration of a foreign person’s representative office
the legal framework is the Investment Promotion Act, and the competent authority. The registration body is the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
Procedure and documents required
- Official registration document of the foreign person issued by the relevant competent authority as per its national legislation.
- Official document regarding the persons managing and representing the foreign person.
- Resolution of the managing body of the foreign person for opening a representative office in Bulgaria.
- Special notarized original power of attorney issued by the person(s) representing the company, for the person authorised to register and manage the representative office in Bulgaria. It also is specifying the powers granted to the latter.
- Original specimen(s) of the signature(s) of the person(s) being representative(s) in Bulgaria, whether by virtue of law or by special authorisations, certified by a notary public.
- Document evidencing payment of the registration fee for the representative office.
Terms of registration
The registration terms are between 1 and 3 days (according to the declared wish and the fee paid).
Procedure for registration of a trade representation office
An applicant can be any resident with the right to conduct business under its national legislation. We can prepare for you all documents necessary for registration of a trade representation of foreign legal entity. Persons who are representatives of foreign commercial companies and have registered trade offices in BCCI can obtain a permit for continuous stay in the country. The term is one year (Art. 24, paragraph 1, p. 6 of the Law on Foreigners in the Republic of Bulgaria). The actual residence permit may be renewed on the same grounds after the expiry of the prescribed term.
Upon registration of a trade representation, you must have the funds from abroad for its maintenance. This applies also to any proceeds from SSI benefits for workers who are Bulgarian citizens. Since no representation carries on business, commercial offices are not required to file an annual tax return. For the same reason, they do not pay withholding taxes under the Corporate Income Tax Act.
Although not transact business, commercial offices are tax-liable for the social costs of staff employed under an employment contract and management. Regarding the law, transactions and payments made by residents in the country, carried out by commercial representation on his behalf or under the authority of the foreign entity, are considered as accomplished independent economic activity subject to taxation.On the grounds of Article 24, paragraph 1 of the Law on Promotion of Investment, trade represantation of foreign entities offceis are obligated to enter in the Commercial Register of the Chamber of Commerce.
When a foreign person can register as a trade representative in Bulgaria?
As lawyers in commercial matters, we will advise you that this happens when the company has got the right to conduct business, in accordance with the law of the country it had been established in.
Legal aspects in conducting business
Foreign person who has got trade representation in Bulgaria cannot carry out business on his/her behalf. This is because he/she is not a legal entity. Concluded with his/her brokerage transactions are conducted on behalf of the principal (non-resident).
Commercial representation must be recorded in the Unified Commercial Register of the Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BCCI), despite the fact that it is not a legal entity and has got no right to conduct business.
For more information about the types of legal services we offer, please contact us. As for as commercial ajnd compnay lawyer on +359 2/858 10 25, or by e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org.